理科

記録1.3メガジュールショットで確認された点火

LLNLの国立点火施設(National Ignition Facility)で1.3メガジュール以上の収率を達成してから1周年を迎え、この記録実験の科学的結果は3つの同僚レビュー論文(Physical Review Lettersに1つ、Physical Review Eに2つ) )に掲載されました。 この様式化された画像は、これらの記録的な慣性核融合実験に使用される極低温ターゲットを示しています。 クレジット:ジェームズ・ウィックボルト/LLNL

数十年の慣性密閉核融合研究の終わりに 1.3メガジュール(MJ) これは2021年8月8日に初めて達成されました。 これは、ローレンス・リバーモア国立研究所(LLNL’s National Ignition Facility)の科学者を核融合利得のしきい値に置き、科学的着火を達成しました。

この歴史的達成1周年を迎え、この記録的な実験の科学的結果が3つの同僚審査論文に発表されました。 にある論文が発表された。 物理的なレビューの手紙 そして2つ 物理レビューE。 から 物理的なレビューの手紙 論文には1,000人以上の著者が含まれており、この重要な発展を可能にするために数十年間努力してきた多くの個人を認め、認めました。

LLNLの慣性監禁核融合プログラムの上級科学者であるOmar Hurricaneは、「この記録は、NIFの実験室で核融合点火が可能であることを実証する核融合研究の主要な科学的進歩でした」と述べた。 「点火に必要な条件を達成することは、すべての慣性密閉核融合研究の長期的な目標であり、アルファ粒子自己発熱が核融合のすべての冷却メカニズムを上回る新しい実験システムへのアクセスを提供します.[{” attribute=””>plasma.”

The results from August 8, 2021, are described in detail in the papers. They also include the associated design, improvements, and experimental measurements. LLNL physicist Alex Zylstra, lead experimentalist and first author of the experimental Physical Review E paper, noted that in 2020 and early 2021 the Lab conducted experiments in the “burning plasma” regime for the first time. These set the stage for the record shot.

“From that design, we made several improvements to get to the August 8, 2021, shot,” he said. “Improvements to the physics design and quality of target all helped lead to the success of the August shot, which is discussed in the Physical Review E papers.”

This experiment incorporated a few important changes, including an improved target design. “Reducing the coasting-time with more efficient hohlraums compared to prior experiments was key in moving between the burning plasma and ignition regimes,” said LLNL physicist Annie Kritcher, lead designer and first author of the design Physical Review E paper. “The other main changes were improved capsule quality and a smaller fuel fill tube.”

Since the experiment last August, the researchers have been executing a series of experiments to attempt to repeat the performance and to understand the experimental sensitivities in this new regime.

“Many variables can impact each experiment,” Kritcher said. “The 192 laser beams do not perform exactly the same from shot to shot, the quality of targets varies and the ice layer grows at differing roughness on each target. These experiments provided an opportunity to test and understand the inherent variability in this new, sensitive experimental regime.”

Although the repeat attempts have not reached the same level of fusion yield as the August 2021 experiment, all of them demonstrated capsule gain greater than unity. They have had yields in the 430-700 kJ range, which are significantly higher than the previous highest yield of 170 kJ from February 2021. The data gained from these and other experiments are providing crucial clues as to what went right and what changes are needed in order to not only repeat that experiment but also exceed its performance in the future. The scientists are also utilizing the experimental data to increase understanding of the fundamental processes of fusion ignition and burn. They’re also working to enhance simulation tools in support of stockpile stewardship.

Looking ahead, the research team is working to leverage the accumulated experimental data and simulations to move toward a more robust regime – further beyond the ignition cliff – where general trends found in this new experimental regime can be better separated from variability in targets and laser performance.

Efforts to increase fusion performance and robustness are underway via improvements to the laser and improvements to the targets. Additionally, they’re working on modifications to the design that further improve energy delivery to the hotspot while maintaining or even increasing the hot-spot pressure. This includes improving the compression of the fusion fuel, increasing the amount of fuel, and other avenues.

“It is extremely exciting to have an ‘existence proof’ of ignition in the lab,” Hurricane said. “We’re operating in a regime that no researchers have accessed since the end of nuclear testing, and it’s an incredible opportunity to expand our knowledge as we continue to make progress.”

References:

“Lawson Criterion for Ignition Exceeded in an Inertial Fusion Experiment” by H. Abu-Shawareb et al. (Indirect Drive ICF Collaboration), 8 August 2022, Physical Review Letters.
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.075001

“Experimental achievement and signatures of ignition at the National Ignition Facility” by A. B. Zylstra et al., 8 August 2022, Physical Review E.
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.106.025202

“Design of an inertial fusion experiment exceeding the Lawson criterion for ignition” by A. L. Kritcher et al., 8 August 2022, Physical Review E.
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.106.025201

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Omori Yoshiaki

ミュージックホリック。フードエバンジェリスト。学生。認定エクスプローラー。受賞歴のあるウェブエキスパート。」

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